Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

NOTE 3 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

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NOTE 3 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2016
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]
NOTE 3 –SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include the recoverability and useful lives of long-lived assets, the fair value of the Company’s stock, stock-based compensation, fair values relating to warrant and other derivative liabilities and the valuation allowance related to deferred tax assets. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 825-10, Financial Instruments (“ASC 825-10”) requires disclosure of the fair value of certain financial instruments. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued liabilities as reflected in the balance sheets, approximate fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments. All other significant financial assets, financial liabilities and equity instruments of the Company are either recognized or disclosed in the financial statements together with other information relevant for making a reasonable assessment of future cash flows, interest rate risk and credit risk. Where practicable the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities have been determined and disclosed; otherwise only available information pertinent to fair value has been disclosed.

The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 820-10, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (“ASC 820-10”) and Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 825-10, Financial Instruments (“ASC 825-10”), which permits entities to choose to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value.

Derivative Instrument Liability

The Company accounts for derivative instruments in accordance with ASC 815, which establishes accounting and reporting standards for derivative instruments and hedging activities, including certain derivative instruments embedded in other financial instruments or contracts and requires recognition of all derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value, regardless of hedging relationship designation. Accounting for changes in fair value of the derivative instruments depends on whether the derivatives qualify as hedge relationships and the types of relationships designated are based on the exposures hedged. At June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company did not have any derivative instruments that were designated as hedges.

At June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company had outstanding preferred stock and warrants that contained embedded derivatives. These embedded derivatives include certain conversion features and reset provisions. (See Note 6 and Note 7).

Research and development costs

The Company accounts for research and development costs in accordance with the Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 730-10, Research and Development (“ASC 730-10”). Under ASC 730-10, all research and development costs must be charged to expense as incurred. Accordingly, internal research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Third-party research and developments costs are expensed when the contracted work has been performed or as milestone results have been achieved. Company-sponsored research and development costs related to both present and future products are expensed in the period incurred. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $1,153,043 and $1,579,157 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016; and $489,563 and $791,642 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, respectively.

Net Loss Per Common Share

The Company computes earnings (loss) per share under Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 260-10, Earnings Per Share (“ASC 260-10”). Net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the year.  Diluted earnings per share, if presented, would include the dilution that would occur upon the exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive securities into common stock using the “treasury stock” and/or “if converted” methods as applicable.

The computation of basic and diluted loss per share as of June 30, 2016 and 2015 excludes potentially dilutive securities when their inclusion would be anti-dilutive, or if their exercise prices were greater than the average market price of the common stock during the period.

Potentially dilutive securities excluded from the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share are as follows:

 
 
June 30,
2016
   
June 30,
2015
 
Series C convertible preferred stock
   
726,667
     
1,372,000
 
Options to purchase common stock
   
8,450,190
     
7,330,190
 
Warrants to purchase common stock
   
8,145,722
     
7,772,277
 
Totals
   
17,322,579
     
16,474,467
 

Stock Based Compensation

The Company measures the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. For employees and directors, the fair value of the award is measured on the grant date and for non-employees, the fair value of the award is generally re-measured on vesting dates and interim financial reporting dates until the service period is complete. The fair value amount is then recognized over the period during which services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period.

As of June 30, 2016, the Company had 8,450,190 options outstanding to purchase shares of common stock, of which 7,000,400 were vested.

As of December 31, 2015, the Company had 7,780,190 options outstanding to purchase shares of common stock, of which 5,613,501 were vested.

Income Taxes

The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 740-10, Income Taxes (“ASC 740-10”) for recording the provision for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are computed based upon the difference between the financial statement and income tax basis of assets and liabilities using the enacted marginal tax rate applicable when the related asset or liability is expected to be realized or settled. Deferred income tax expenses or benefits are based on the changes in the asset or liability during each period. If available evidence suggests that it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance is required to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Future changes in such valuation allowance are included in the provision for deferred income taxes in the period of change. Deferred income taxes may arise from temporary differences resulting from income and expense items reported for financial accounting and tax purposes in different periods.

Deferred taxes are classified as current or non-current, depending on the classification of assets and liabilities to which they relate.  Deferred taxes arising from temporary differences that are not related to an asset or liability are classified as current or non-current depending on the periods in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse and are considered immaterial.

Registration Rights

 The Company accounts for registration rights agreements in accordance with the Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 825-20, Registration Payment Arraignments (“ASC 825-20”). Under ASC 825-20, the Company is required to disclose the nature and terms of the arraignment, the maximum potential amount and to assess each reporting period the probable liability under these arraignments and, if exists, to record or adjust the liability to current period operations.  On June 23, 2014, the Company filed Form S-1/A became effective with the Securities and Exchange Commission.  As such, the Company determined that payments were due under its registration rights agreement and therefore accrued $55,620 as interest expense during the year ended December 31, 2014 for the liability under the registration rights agreements. During the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company estimated the liability at $-0- and therefore recorded the change to current period operations.

Beginning on October 23, 2015, the Company entered into subscription agreements with certain accredited investors pursuant to which the Company sold to the investors units, which each unit consisting of one share of the Company’s common stock and a warrant to purchase one half of one share of common stock (the “Private Placement”).  In connection with the Private Placement, the Company also entered into a registration rights agreements with the investors, pursuant to which the Company agreed to provide certain registration rights with respect to the common stock and warrants issued under the Private Placement.  The registration rights agreements require the Company to file a registration statement within 45 calendar days upon the final closing under the Private Placement and to be effective 120 calendar days thereafter. The final closing under the Private Placement occurred on April 29, 2016. The Company has estimated the liability under the registration rights agreement at $-0- as of June 30, 2016.

Reclassification

Certain reclassifications have been made to prior periods’ data to conform with the current year’s presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on reported income or losses.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation, or ASU No. 2016-09. The areas for simplification in this Update involve several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. For public entities, the amendments in this Update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted in any interim or annual period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. An entity that elects early adoption must adopt all of the amendments in the same period. Amendments related to the timing of when excess tax benefits are recognized, minimum statutory withholding requirements, forfeitures, and intrinsic value should be applied using a modified retrospective transition method by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to equity as of the beginning of the period in which the guidance is adopted. Amendments related to the presentation of employee taxes paid on the statement of cash flows when an employer withholds shares to meet the minimum statutory withholding requirement should be applied retrospectively. Amendments requiring recognition of excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies in the income statement and the practical expedient for estimating expected term should be applied prospectively. An entity may elect to apply the amendments related to the presentation of excess tax benefits on the statement of cash flows using either a prospective transition method or a retrospective transition method. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU No. 2016-09 on financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. Topic 842 affects any entity that enters into a lease, with some specified scope exemptions. The guidance in this Update supersedes Topic 840, Leases. The core principle of Topic 842 is that a lessee should recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from leases. A lessee should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For public companies, the amendments in this Update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years.  The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU No. 2016-02 on our financial statements.

There are various other updates recently issued, most of which represented technical corrections to the accounting literature or application to specific industries and are not expected to a have a material impact on the Company's financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Subsequent Events

The Company evaluates events that have occurred after the balance sheet date but before the financial statements are issued.  Based upon the evaluation, the Company did not identify any recognized or non-recognized subsequent events that would have required adjustment or disclosure in the condensed consolidated financial statements, except as disclosed.