NOTE 3 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
NOTE 3 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include the recoverability and useful lives of long-lived assets, the fair value of the Company’s stock, stock-based compensation and the valuation allowance related to deferred tax assets. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 825-10, Financial Instruments (“ASC 825-10”) requires disclosure of the fair value of certain financial instruments. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued liabilities as reflected in the balance sheets, approximate fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments. All other significant financial assets, financial liabilities and equity instruments of the Company are either recognized or disclosed in the financial statements together with other information relevant for making a reasonable assessment of future cash flows, interest rate risk and credit risk. Where practicable the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities have been determined and disclosed; otherwise only available information pertinent to fair value has been disclosed.
The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 820-10, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (“ASC 820-10”) and Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 825-10, Financial Instruments (“ASC 825-10”), which permits entities to choose to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value.
Derivative Instrument Liability
The Company accounts for derivative instruments in accordance with ASC 815, which establishes accounting and reporting standards for derivative instruments and hedging activities, including certain derivative instruments embedded in other financial instruments or contracts and requires recognition of all derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value, regardless of hedging relationship designation. Accounting for changes in fair value of the derivative instruments depends on whether the derivatives qualify as hedge relationships and the types of relationships designated are based on the exposures hedged. At March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company did not have any derivative instruments that were designated as hedges.
At March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company had outstanding preferred stock and warrants that contained embedded derivatives. These embedded derivatives include certain conversion features and reset provisions. On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2017-11 and according reclassified the fair value of the reset provisions embedded in previously issued Preferred stock and certain warrants with embedded anti-dilutive provisions from liability to equity.
Research and development costs
The Company accounts for research and development costs in accordance with the Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 730-10, Research and Development (“ASC 730-10”). Under ASC 730-10, all research and development costs must be charged to expense as incurred. Accordingly, internal research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Third-party research and developments costs are expensed when the contracted work has been performed or as milestone results have been achieved. Company-sponsored research and development costs related to both present and future products are expensed in the period incurred. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $1,488,839 and $862,420 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments and related items, which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company places its cash and temporary cash investments with credit quality institutions. At times, such amounts may be in excess of the FDIC insurance limit. At March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, deposits in excess of FDIC limits were $10,683,593 and $4,200,160, respectively.
Net Income (loss) Per Common Share
The Company computes earnings (loss) per share under Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 260-10, Earnings Per Share (“ASC 260-10”). Net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share, if presented, would include the dilution that would occur upon the exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive securities into common stock using the “treasury stock” and/or “if converted” methods as applicable.
The computation of basic and diluted loss per share as of March 31, 2019 and 2018 excludes potentially dilutive securities when their inclusion would be anti-dilutive, or if their exercise prices were greater than the average market price of the common stock during the period.
Potentially dilutive securities excluded from the computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share are as follows:
Stock Based Compensation
The Company measures the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. For employees and directors, the fair value of the award is measured on the grant date and for non-employees, the fair value of the award is generally re-measured on vesting dates and interim financial reporting dates until the service period is complete. The fair value amount is then recognized over the period during which services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period.
As of March 31, 2019, the Company had 3,940,828 options outstanding to purchase shares of common stock, of which 3,042,512 were vested.
As of December 31, 2018, there were outstanding stock options to purchase 3,135,828 shares of common stock, 3,007,946 shares of which were vested.
The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 740-10, Income Taxes (“ASC 740-10”) for recording the provision for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are computed based upon the difference between the financial statement and income tax basis of assets and liabilities using the enacted marginal tax rate applicable when the related asset or liability is expected to be realized or settled. Deferred income tax expenses or benefits are based on the changes in the asset or liability during each period. If available evidence suggests that it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance is required to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Future changes in such valuation allowance are included in the provision for deferred income taxes in the period of change. Deferred income taxes may arise from temporary differences resulting from income and expense items reported for financial accounting and tax purposes in different periods.
The Company capitalizes certain initial asset costs in connection with patent applications including registration, documentation and other professional fees associated with the application. Patent costs incurred prior to the Company’s U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) 510 (k) application on March 28, 2018 were charged to research and development expense as incurred. Commencing upon first in-man trials on February 18 and 19, 2019, capitalized costs are amortized to expense using the straight-line method over the lesser of the legal patent term or the estimated life of the product of 10 years. During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the Company recorded amortization of $2,726 to current period operations.
On March 12, 2019, in connection with the Company’s Private Placement of common stock, the Company also agreed on or prior the date that is 45 calendar days after the closing date of the Private Placement, the Company will be required to use commercially reasonable efforts to prepare and file a registration statement on Form S-3 or Form S-1 with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) covering the resale of the common shares. The Company is additionally required to use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective by the SEC as soon as practicable thereafter. All expenses related to the filing of such registration statement, including legal fees, will be borne by the Company. The Company has estimated the liability under the registration rights agreement at $-0- as of March 31, 2019.
Adoption of Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the FASB established ASC Topic 842, Leases (Topic 842), by issuing ASU No. 2016-02, which requires lessees to recognize leases on-balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-01, Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842; ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases; and ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (ROU) model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet. Leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the statement of operations. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2019.
The new standard provides a number of optional practical expedients in transition. The Company has elected the ‘package of practical expedients’, which permit it not to reassess under the new standard its prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. The Company did not elect the use-of-hindsight or the practical expedient pertaining to land easements; the latter is not applicable to the Company.
The new standard had a material effect on the Company’s financial statements. The most significant effects of adoption relate to (1) the recognition of new ROU assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet for real estate operating leases; and (2) providing significant new disclosures about its leasing activities.
Upon adoption, the Company recognized additional operating lease liabilities, net of deferred rent, of approximately $419,000 based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments under current leasing standards for existing operating leases. The Company also recognized corresponding ROU assets of approximately $419,000.
The new standard also provides practical expedients for an entity’s ongoing accounting. The Company elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for those leases that qualify, the Company will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities, and this includes not recognizing ROU assets or lease liabilities for existing short-term leases of those assets in transition. Beginning in 2019, the Company changed to its disclosed lease recognition policies and practices, as well as to other related financial statement disclosures due to the adoption of this standard. See Note 5.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
There were various updates recently issued, most of which represented technical corrections to the accounting literature or application to specific industries and are not expected to a have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The Company evaluates events that have occurred after the balance sheet date but before the consolidated financial statements are issued. Based upon the evaluation, the Company did not identify any recognized or non-recognized subsequent events that would have required adjustment or disclosure in the consolidated financial statements, except as disclosed.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef