NOTE 1 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
NOTE 1 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
A summary of the significant accounting policies applied in the preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements follows.
Business and organization
BioSig Technologies Inc. (the “Company”) was initially incorporated on February 24, 2009 under the laws of the State of Nevada and subsequently re-incorporated in the state of Delaware in 2011. The Company and its efforts are principally devoted to improving the quality of cardiac recordings obtained during ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). The Company has not generated any revenue to date and consequently its operations are subject to all risks inherent in the establishment of a new business enterprise.
On November 7, 2018, the Company formed NeuroClear Technologies, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, for the purpose to pursue additional applications of the PURE EP™ signal processing technology outside of electrophysiology. As of December 31, 2018, there were no significant assets or liabilities in NeuroClear Technologies, Inc, or operations since its formation.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of BioSig Technologies, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary, NeuroClear Technologies, Inc. to as the “Company” or “BioSig”.
Effective September 10, 2018, the Company amended its Articles of Incorporation to implement a reverse stock split in the ratio of 1 share for every 2.5 shares of common stock. As a result, 40,333,758 shares of the Company’s common stock were exchanged for 16,133,544 shares of the Company's common stock. These consolidated financial statements have been retroactively restated to reflect the reverse stock split (See Note 8).
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board “FASB” Accounting Standards Codification “ASC” 606. A five-step analysis a must be met as outlined in Topic 606: (i) identify the contract with the customer, (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determine the transaction price, (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations, and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) performance obligations are satisfied. Provisions for discounts and rebates to customers, estimated returns and allowances, and other adjustments are provided for in the same period the related sales are recorded. There were no changes to our revenue recognition policy from the adoption of ASC 606.
Use of estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include the recoverability and useful lives of long-lived assets, the fair value of the Company’s stock, stock-based compensation, fair values relating to warrant and other derivative liabilities and the valuation allowance related to deferred tax assets. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments and related items, which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company places its cash and temporary cash investments with credit quality institutions. At times, such amounts may be in excess of the FDIC insurance limit. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, deposits in excess of FDIC limits were $4,200,160 and $1,297,579, respectively.
Prepaid expenses are comprised of vendor deposits of $100,000, prepaid insurance and operating expense prepayments.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives of 3 to 5 years. When retired or otherwise disposed, the related carrying value and accumulated depreciation are removed from the respective accounts and the net difference less any amount realized from disposition, is reflected in earnings.
The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification 360-10-15-3, “Impairment or Disposal of Long-lived Assets,” which established a “primary asset” approach to determine the cash flow estimation period for a group of assets and liabilities that represents the unit of accounting for a long-lived asset to be held and used. Long-lived assets to be held and used are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. Long-lived assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less cost to sell.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 825-10, Financial Instruments (“ASC 825-10”) requires disclosure of the fair value of certain financial instruments. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued liabilities as reflected in the balance sheets, approximate fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments. All other significant financial assets, financial liabilities and equity instruments of the Company are either recognized or disclosed in the consolidated financial statements together with other information relevant for making a reasonable assessment of future cash flows, interest rate risk and credit risk. Where practicable the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities have been determined and disclosed; otherwise only available information pertinent to fair value has been disclosed.
The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 820-10, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (“ASC 820-10”) and Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 825-10, Financial Instruments (“ASC 825-10”), which permits entities to choose to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value.
Derivative Instrument Liability
The Company accounts for derivative instruments in accordance with ASC 815, which establishes accounting and reporting standards for derivative instruments and hedging activities, including certain derivative instruments embedded in other financial instruments or contracts and requires recognition of all derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value, regardless of hedging relationship designation. Accounting for changes in fair value of the derivative instruments depends on whether the derivatives qualify as hedge relationships and the types of relationships designated are based on the exposures hedged. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not have any derivative instruments that were designated as hedges.
At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had outstanding preferred stock and warrants that contained embedded derivatives. These embedded derivatives include certain conversion features and reset provisions (See Note 6 and Note 7).
Research and development costs
The Company accounts for research and development costs in accordance with the Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 730-10, Research and Development (“ASC 730-10”). Under ASC 730-10, all research and development costs must be charged to expense as incurred. Accordingly, internal research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Third-party research and developments costs are expensed when the contracted work has been performed or as milestone results have been achieved. Company-sponsored research and development costs related to both present and future products are expensed in the period incurred. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $4,368,784 and $4,756,468 for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 740-10, Income Taxes (“ASC 740-10”) for recording the provision for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are computed based upon the difference between the financial statement and income tax basis of assets and liabilities using the enacted marginal tax rate applicable when the related asset or liability is expected to be realized or settled. Deferred income tax expenses or benefits are based on the changes in the asset or liability during each period. If available evidence suggests that it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance is required to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Future changes in such valuation allowance are included in the provision for deferred income taxes in the period of change. Deferred income taxes may arise from temporary differences resulting from income and expense items reported for financial accounting and tax purposes in different periods.
On December 27, 2017, the Tax and Jobs Act (TCJA) was signed into law by the President of the United States, TCJA is a tax reform act that among other things, reduced corporate tax rates to 21 percent effective January 1, 2018. Accordingly, the Company adjusted its deferred tax assets and liabilities at December 31, 2018, using the new corporate rate of 21 percent. See Note 12.
Net Income (loss) Per Common Share
The Company computes earnings (loss) per share under Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 260-10, Earnings Per Share (“ASC 260-10”). Net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share, if presented, would include the dilution that would occur upon the exercise or conversion of all potentially dilutive securities into common stock using the “treasury stock” and/or “if converted” methods as applicable.
The computation of basic and diluted loss per share as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 excludes potentially dilutive securities when their inclusion would be anti-dilutive, or if their exercise prices were greater than the average market price of the common stock during the period.
Potentially dilutive securities excluded from the computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share are as follows:
Stock Based Compensation
The Company measures the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. For employees and directors, the fair value of the award is measured on the grant date and for non-employees, the fair value of the award is generally re-measured on vesting dates and interim financial reporting dates until the service period is complete. The fair value amount is then recognized over the period during which services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had 3,135,828 options outstanding to purchase shares of common stock, of which 3,007,946 were vested.
As of December 31, 2017, there were outstanding stock options to purchase 3,404,131 shares of common stock, 2,938,995 shares of which were vested.
The Company capitalizes certain initial asset costs in connection with patent applications including registration, documentation and other professional fees associated with the application. Patent costs incurred prior to the Company’s U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) 510 (k) application on March 28, 2018 were charged to research and development expense as incurred. Commencing upon patent approval, capitalized costs will be amortized to expense using the straight-line method over the lesser of the legal patent term or the estimated life of the product.
The Company accounts for registration rights agreements in accordance with the Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 825-20, Registration Payment Arrangements (“ASC 825-20”). Under ASC 825-20, the Company is required to disclose the nature and terms of the arrangement, the maximum potential amount and to assess each reporting period the probable liability under these arrangements and, if exists, to record or adjust the liability to current period operations.
Beginning on October 28, 2016, the Company entered into subscription agreements with certain accredited investors pursuant to which the Company sold to the investors units, which each unit consisting of one share of the Company’s common stock and a warrant to purchase one half of one share of common stock (the “Private Placement”). In connection with the Private Placement, the Company also entered into a registration rights agreements with the investors, pursuant to which the Company agreed to provide certain registration rights with respect to the common stock and warrants issued under the Private Placement. The registration rights agreements require the Company to file a registration statement within 45 calendar days upon the final closing under the Private Placement and to be effective 120 calendar days thereafter. The final closing under the Private Placement occurred on March 31, 2017. On June 8, 2017, the Company filed the required registration statement and on September 19, 2017 was declared effective. The Company has estimated the liability under the registration rights agreement at $-0- as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Beginning on April 6, 2017, the Company entered into subscription agreements with certain accredited investors pursuant to which the Company sold to the investors units, which each unit consisting of one share of the Company’s common stock and a warrant to purchase one half of one share of common stock (the “Private Placement”). In connection with the Private Placement, the Company also entered into a registration rights agreements with the investors, pursuant to which the Company agreed to provide certain registration rights with respect to the common stock and warrants issued under the Private Placement. The registration rights agreements require the Company to file a registration statement within 45 calendar days upon the final closing under the Private Placement and to be effective 120 calendar days thereafter. The final closing under the Private Placement occurred on December 31, 2017.
On February 28, 2018, the Company filed the required registration statement and on March 26, 2018 was declared effective. The Company has estimated the liability under the registration rights agreement at $-0- as of December 31, 2018.
On November 3, 2017, in connection with the Company’s private placement of Series D Preferred Stock and warrants, the Company entered into a registration rights agreement with the purchasers pursuant to which the Company agreed to provide certain registration rights with respect to the common stock issuable upon conversion of Series D Preferred Stock and exercise of the warrants issued to holders of Series D Preferred Stock. Specifically, the Company agreed to file a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission covering the resale of the common stock issuable upon conversion of the Series D Preferred Stock and exercise of the warrants on or before December 18, 2017 and to cause such registration statement to be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission, in the event that the registration statement is not reviewed by the Securities and Exchange Commission, within five trading days after the Company is notified that registration statement is not being reviewed by the Securities and Exchange Commission, and by March 18, 2018 in the event that the registration statement is reviewed by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Securities and Exchange Commission issues comments. On December 18, 2017, the Company filed the required registration statement and on December 29, 2017 was declared effective. The Company has estimated the liability under the registration rights agreement at $-0- as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
On February 16, 2018, in connection with the Company’s private placement of Series E Preferred Stock and warrants, the Company also entered into a registration rights agreement (the “Registration Rights Agreement”) whereby the Company agreed to file a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) within 90 days of the closing of the transactions contemplated by the Purchase Agreement (the “Filing Date”) covering the resale of (a) all shares of Common Stock Issuable upon conversion of the Preferred Shares, (b) all shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants, (c) all other shares of Common Stock issued pursuant to any transaction documents which have been, or which may, from time to time be issued or become issuable to the Investors under the Transaction Documents (without regard to any limitation or restriction on purchases), and (d) any securities issued or then issuable upon any stock split, dividend or other distribution, recapitalization or similar event (“Registrable Securities”), not then registered. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to keep the registrations statement effective pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act until the earlier of (i) the date on which the Investors shall have sold all the Registrable Securities covered thereby and (ii) that date that all Registrable Securities may be sold pursuant to Rule 144 without any public information requirement or volume or manner of sale limitations. On May 16, 2018, the Company filed the required registration statement. The Company has estimated the liability under the registration rights agreement at $-0- as of December 31, 2018.
Adoption of Accounting Standards
In July 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815). The amendments in Part I of this Update change the classification analysis of certain equity-linked financial instruments (or embedded features) with down round features.
When determining whether certain financial instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity instruments, a down round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock. The amendments also clarify existing disclosure requirements for equity-classified instruments. As a result, a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded conversion option) no longer would be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value as a result of the existence of a down round feature. For freestanding equity classified financial instruments, the amendments require entities that present earnings per share (EPS) in accordance with Topic 260 to recognize the effect of the down round feature when it is triggered. That effect is treated as a dividend and as a reduction of income available to common shareholders in basic EPS.
Convertible instruments with embedded conversion options that have down round features are now subject to the specialized guidance for contingent beneficial conversion features (in Subtopic 470-20, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options), including related EPS guidance (in Topic 260). The amendments in Part II of this Update recharacterize the indefinite deferral of certain provisions of Topic 480 that now are presented as pending content in the Codification, to a scope exception.
Those amendments do not have an accounting effect. For public business entities, the amendments in Part I of this Update are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted for all entities, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2017-11 and accordingly reclassified the fair value of the reset provisions embedded in previously issued Series C Preferred stock, Series D Preferred stock and certain warrants with embedded anti-dilutive provisions from liability to equity in aggregate of $3,044,162.
In February 2016, the FASB established ASC Topic 842, Leases (Topic 842), by issuing ASU No. 2016-02, which requires lessees to recognize leases on-balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-01, Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842; ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases; and ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (ROU) model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet. Leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the statement of operations. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2019.
The new standard provides a number of optional practical expedients in transition. The Company has elected the ‘package of practical expedients’, which permit it not to reassess under the new standard its prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. The Company does not expect to elect the use-of-hindsight or the practical expedient pertaining to land easements; the latter is not applicable to the Company.
The new standard will have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements. The most significant effects of adoption relate to (1) the recognition of new ROU assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet for real estate operating leases; and (2) providing significant new disclosures about its leasing activities.
Upon adoption, the Company will recognize additional operating lease liabilities, net of deferred rent, of approximately $419,000 based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments under current leasing standards for existing operating leases. The Company expects to recognize corresponding ROU assets of approximately $419,000.
The new standard also provides practical expedients for an entity’s ongoing accounting. The Company will elect the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for those leases that qualify, the Company will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities, and this includes not recognizing ROU assets or lease liabilities for existing short-term leases of those assets in transition. Beginning in 2019, the Company expects changes to its disclosed lease recognition policies and practices, as well as to other related financial statement disclosures due to the adoption of this standard. These revised disclosures will be made in the Company’s first quarterly report in 2019.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350). The amendments in this update simplify the test for goodwill impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the impairment test, which required the entity to perform procedures to determine the fair value at the impairment testing date of its assets and liabilities following the procedure that would be required in determining fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. The amendments in this update are effective for public companies for annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. We are evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805); Clarifying the Definition of a Business. The amendments in this update clarify the definition of a business to help companies evaluate whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. The amendments in this update are effective for public companies for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those periods. The Company adopted ASU 2017-01 in the first quarter of 2018 and such adoption did not have a material impact on the consolidated unaudited financial statements.
There were various other updates recently issued, most of which represented technical corrections to the accounting literature or application to specific industries and are not expected to a have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The Company evaluates events that have occurred after the balance sheet date but before the consolidated financial statements are issued. Based upon the evaluation, the Company did not identify any recognized or non-recognized subsequent events that would have required adjustment or disclosure in the consolidated financial statements, except as disclosed.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef